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7. Personnel expenses

Cost of sales, selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses included personnel expenses of €6,732 million and €5,555 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Personnel expenses comprised the following:

€ in millions 2012 2011
Wages and salaries 5,347 4,392
Social security contributions, cost of retirement pensions and social assistance 1,385 1,163
thereof retirement pensions 181 144
Personnel expenses 6,732 5,555

€ in millions 2012 2011
Wages and salaries 5,347 4,392
Social security contributions, cost of retirement pensions and social assistance 1,385 1,163
thereof retirement pensions 181 144
Personnel expenses 6,732 5,555

Fresenius Group’s annual average number of employees by function is shown below:

  2012 2011
Production 29,669 26,240
Service 102,997 89,341
Administration 20,518 17,924
Sales and marketing 8,813 8,170
Research and development 1,749 1,513
Total employees (per capita) 163,746 143,188

  2012 2011
Production 29,669 26,240
Service 102,997 89,341
Administration 20,518 17,924
Sales and marketing 8,813 8,170
Research and development 1,749 1,513
Total employees (per capita) 163,746 143,188

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