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8. Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling expenses were €746 million (2011: €677 million) and mainly included expenditures for sales personnel of €366 million (2011: €336 million).

General and administrative expenses amounted to €2,254 million (2011: €1,867 million) and were related to expenditures for administrative functions not attributable to research and development, production or selling.

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9. Investment gain

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